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Solar Components

Let’s get on the same page. This page describes the components of a solar panel, thoroughly. This can be used to clear up any reservations regarding the makeup of a solar panel. 

The composition of a solar panel starts with a frame. An encasement to secure the components of the solar panel. 

The frame can be made out of anything sturdy. However, manufactures opt into using aluminum, because of its heat dissipating properties. 

Frames come in different colors. You may see some in silver, blue, black, or gray. We choose to use the black ones. 

The Frame

Glass

Solar panels use a specific type of glass. After all, the solar energy is gathered through the transparency of the glass. The higher the quality, the better your solar panel would produce. 

The more the ambient processed through the solar cells, the more electricity you would have. 

It is a copolymer film which acts as an essential sealant of photovoltaic solar modules for ensuring the reliability and performance. Encapsulant sheets play an important role in preventing water and dirt from infiltrating into solar modules as well as protecting the cell by softening the shocks and vibrations to the cell. They should possess certain properties like excellent durability, adhesive bonding to the cell and glass, excellent optical transmission and transparency and flexibility. Cells are encapsulated before being laminated with glass and the back sheet.

Encapsulant

Solar Cells

Solar cells are also known as photovoltaic cells (PV), which work to generate electricity directly from sunlight. This is different to photovoltaic thermal cells (PVT), which work to provide heat for water in the home. Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically, and neatly organised into a large frame that is known as a solar panel. The actual solar cells are made of silicon semiconductors that absorb sunlight and then convert it into electricity.

Currently, solar panels that are used for domestic purposes are only able to take around 20% of the sunlight that they receive and turn it into electricity. This is what is known as solar efficiency. There are several other forms of solar cell available that are used for commercial and industrial purposes. These are able to have an efficiency rating of up to 40%, but they do tend to be more expensive than domestic models.

Backsheets play a significant role in protecting PV modules and delivering needed module lifetime. They protect the solar panels against environmental damage and ensure that panels remain electrically insulated.

Backsheet failure can result in module failure such as terrible failure, unacceptable power degradation and safety failures. The impact can be very significant, ranging from brand and reputation damage to outright bodily harm. Solar backsheet is not just the simple layer of a plastic film on the back of the surface of the module, however this is the only layer of protection from dangerous DC voltage.

The major purpose of backsheet is to protect PV module from UV radiations, moisture penetration, electrical insulation of the system, and to offer durability to the PV module. Therefore, PV backsheet is extremely important for increasing the durability of a PV module. The mechanical, electrical, optical and chemical properties and durability of backsheets are critical to the long term reliability, durability and safety of the photovoltaic modules. However, not all backsheets are created equal. In order to protect a module for 25 years, the backsheet must have three critical properties: weather ability, mechanical strength and adhesion; however, the most important thing is the optimal balance of these three properties.

Back Sheet

Junction Box

The junction box is often an overlooked piece of the solar panel. Usually pre-installed on the backside of a solar module, installers pay it little mind until connecting panels.

The PV junction box has a simple, but important role: housing all the electric bits on a solar panel and protecting them from the environment. Wires connect to diodes inside, providing an easy way to link panels together.

Although solar developers and owners don’t get a choice in junction box type—module companies work out those contracts during manufacturing—the role of this enclosure is still important to understand, especially as it houses more “smart” technologies.

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